Young and Neet: A Disincentive for Science, Technology and Innovation in Colombia?

Main Article Content

Diana Lorena Pineda Ospina http://orcid.org/0000-0001-7967-0178

Keywords

Innovation, youth employment, science policy

Abstract

The article presented below aims to identify the implications of a Science, Technology and Innovation Policy that lacks of strategies to link young people who do not study and do not work, or Neet, in activities related to the development of scientific knowledge in Colombia. To fulfill this purpose, the characteristics of the country's young population, its participation in the labor market and its level of training are compared between the second quarter of 2009, the year of creation of the Science, Technology and Innovation Policy -STI-, and the 2016, year in which it was reformed. Among the main findings, relevant aspects for the design of the STI Policy in Colombia are identified, which include intersectional strategies where variables such as gender, age, stratum, educational level and spatial location are relevant for the construction of occupational identities that encourage the bonding of young people to the science, technology and innovation activities of the economy.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.
Abstract 300 | PDF (Español) Downloads 221

References

Ahn, S., Jung, S. H., Jang, S. H., Du, X., Lee, B. H., Rhee, E., Gysbers, N. & Lee, S.M. (2015). Planned Happenstance Skills and Occupational Identity Status in High School Students. Career Development Quarterly, 63(1), 31-43. doi: 10.1002/j.2161-0045.2015.00093.x

Ashcraft, K. L., Muhr, S. L., Rennstam, J. & Sullivan, K. (2012). Professionalization as a Branding Activity: Occupational Identity and the Dialectic of Inclusivity-Exclusivity. Gender, Work and Organization, 19(5), 467-488. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-0432.2012.00600.x

Bell, D. N. F. & Blanchflower, D. G. (2011). Young People and the Great Recession. Oxford Review of Economic Policy, 27(2), 241-267. doi: 10.1093/oxrep/grr011

Bermúdez-Lobera, Juan (2014). Las transiciones a la adultez de los jóvenes que no estudian ni trabajan (Ninis) en México. Papeles de Población, 20(79), 243-279.

Browne, I. & Misra, J. (2003). The Intersection of Gender and Race in the Labor Market. Annual Review of Sociology, 29, 487-513. doi: 10.1146/annurev.soc.29.010202.100016

Bynner, J. (2012). Policy Reflections Guided by Longitudinal Study, Youth Training, Social Exclusion, and More Recently Neet. British Journal of Educational Studies, 60(1), 39-52. doi: 10.1080/00071005.2011.650943

Caliendo, M. & Schmidl, R. (2016). Youth Unemployment and Active Labor Market Policies in Europe. IZA Journal of Labor Policy, 5(1), 1-30. doi: 10.1186/s40173-016-0057-x

Carr, E. R. & Thompson, M. C. (2014). Gender and Climate Change Adaptation in Agrarian Settings: Current Thinking, New Directions, and Research Frontiers. Geography Compass, 8(3), 182-197. doi: 10.1111/gec3.12121

Cho, S., Crenshaw, K. W. & McCall, L. (2013). Toward a Field of Intersectionality Studies: Theory, Applications, and Praxis. Signs, 38(4), 785-810. doi: 10.1086/669608

Choo, H. Y. & Ferree, M. M. (2010). Practicing Intersectionality in Sociological Research: A Critical Analysis of Inclusions, Interactions, and Institutions in the Study of Inequalities. Sociological Theory, 28(2), 129-149. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9558.2010.01370.x

Crenshaw, K. W. (1991). Mapping the Margins: Intersectionality, Identity Politics, and Violence Against Women of Color. Stanford Law Review, 43(6), 1241-1299.

DANE (2009). Encuesta Anual Manufacturera. Consulta en línea: http://www.dane.gov.co/
DANE (2009). Encuesta de Desarrollo e Innovación Tecnológica. Consulta en línea: http://www.dane.gov.co/

DANE (2009). Gran Encuesta Integrada de Hogares –II trimestre. Consulta en línea: http://www.dane.gov.co/

DANE (2016). Encuesta Anual Manufacturera. Consulta en línea: http://www.dane.gov.co/

DANE (2016). Encuesta de Desarrollo e Innovación Tecnológica. Consulta en línea: http://www.dane.gov.co/

DANE (2016). Gran Encuesta Integrada de Hogares –II trimestre. Consulta en línea: http://www.dane.gov.co/

Duatrey, P. (2014). La invención de una categoría: los Ninis. El caso mexicano. RIPS. Revista de Investigaciones Políticas y Sociológicas, 13(2),103-122.

de Jonga, J. P. J., Kalvet, T. & Vanhaverbeke, W. (2010). Exploring a Theoretical Framework to Structure the Public Policy Implications of Open Innovation. Technology Analysis and Strategic Management, 22(8), 877-896. doi: 10.1080/09537325.2010.522771

de la Torre, L. y Baquerin de Riccitelli, M. (2017). Los jóvenes argentinos que no estudian ni trabajan: déficit de integración social. Reis. Revista Española de Investigaciones Sociológicas, 158,97-116. doi:10.5477/cis/reis.158.97

Demidova, O., Marelli, E. & Signorelli, M. (2015). Youth Labour Market Performances in the Russian and Italian Regions. Economic Systems, 39(1), 43-58. doi: 10.1016/j.ecosys.2014.06.003

Dietrich, H. & Möller, J. (2016). Youth Unemployment in Europe – Business Cycle and Institutional Effects. International Economics and Economic Policy, 13(1), 5-25. doi: 10.1007/s10368-015-0331-1

DNP (2009). CONPES 3582. Política Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología.
https://colaboracion.dnp.gov.co/CDT/Conpes/Econ%C3%B3micos/3582.pdf

Enders, J. (2005). Border Crossings: Research Training, Knowledge Dissemination and the Transformation of Academic Work. Higher Education, 49(1-2), 119-133. doi: 10.1007/s10734-004-2917-3

Ernst, H., Kahle, H. N., Dubiel, A., Prabhu, J. & Subramaniam, M. (2015). The Antecedents and Consequences of Affordable Value Innovations for Emerging Markets. Journal of Product Innovation Management, 32(1), 65-79. doi: 10.1111/jpim.12171

European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions (2012). NEETs Young People Not in Employment, Education or Training: Characteristics, Costs and Policy Responses in Europe. https://www.eurofound.europa.eu/sites/default/files/ef_publication/field_ef_document/ef1254en.pdf

Genda, Y. (2007). Jobless Youths and the NEET Problem in Japan. Social Science Japan Journal, 10(1), 23-40. doi: 10.1093/ssjj/jym029

Ghoshray, A., Ordóñez, J. & Sala, H. (2016). Euro, Crisis and Unemployment: Youth Patterns, Youth Policies? Economic Modelling, 58, 442-453. doi: 10.1016/j.econmod.2016.05.017

Hammer, T. (2007). Labour Market Integration of Unemployed Youth From a Life Course Perspective: The Case of Norway. International Journal of Social Welfare, 16(3), 249-257. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-2397.2006.00467.x

Hancock, A.-M. (2007). When Multiplication Doesn't Equal Quick Addition: Examining Intersectionality as a Research Paradigm. Perspectives on Politics, 5(1), 63-79. doi: 10.1017/S1537592707070065

Hankivsky, O. & Christoffersen, A. (2011). Gender Mainstreaming in the United Kingdom: Current Issues and Future Challenges. British Politics, 6(1), 30-51. doi: 10.1057/bp.2011.1

Hankivsky, O., Grace, D., Hunting, G., Giesbrecht, M., Fridkin, A., Rudrum, S., Ferlatte, O. & Clark, N. (2014). An Intersectionality-Based Policy Analysis Framework: Critical Reflections on a Methodology for Advancing Equity. International Journal for Equity in Health, 13(1). doi: 10.1186/s12939-014-0119-x

Hogan, D. & Gopinathan, S. (2008). Knowledge Management, Sustainable Innovation, and Pre-Service Teacher Education in Singapore. Teachers and Teaching: Theory and Practice, 14(4), 369-384. doi: 10.1080/13540600802037793

Hutchinson, J., Beck, V. & Hooley, T. (2016). Delivering NEET Policy Packages? A Decade of NEET Policy in England. Journal of Education and Work, 29(6), 707-727. doi: 10.1080/13639080.2015.1051519

Ishii, K. & Uchida, Y. (2016). Japanese Youth Marginalization Decreases Interdependent Orientation. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 47(3), 376-384. doi: 10.1177/0022022115621969

Kelly, E. & McGuinness, S. (2015). Impact of the Great Recession on Unemployed and NEET Individual´s Labour Market Transitions in Ireland. Economic Systems, 39(1), 59-71. doi: 10.1016/j.ecosys.2014.06.004

Kovalainen, A. & Poutanen, S. (2013). Gendering Innovation Process in an Industrial Plant - Revisiting Tokenism, Gender and Innovation. International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, 5(3), 257-274. doi: 10.1108/IJGE-09-2012-0054

LaboUr (2017). Perfil juvenil urbano de la inactividad y el desempleo en el país. https://www.labourosario.com/single-post/2017/03/30/Informe-Perfil-Juvenil-Urbano-De-La-Inactividad-Y-El-Desempleo-En-El-Pa%C3%ADs Bogotá: Universidad del Rosario.

Lam, A. (2002). Alternative Societal Models of Learning and Innovation in the Knowledge Economy. International Social Science Journal, 54(171), 68-82.

Ley 1622 del 29 de abril de 2013. Estatuto de Ciudadanía Juvenil, artículo 5.

Maguire, S. (2015). Young People Not in Education, Employment or Training (NEET): Recent Policy Initiatives in England and Their Effects. Research in Comparative and International Education, 10(4), 525-536. doi: 10.1177/1745499915612186

Manuel, T. (2007). Envisioning the Possibilities for a Good Life: Exploring the Public Policy Implications of Intersectionality Theory. Journal of Women, Politics and Policy, 28(3-4), 173-203. doi: 10.1300/J501v28n03_08

McCall, L. (2005). The complexity of intersectionality. Signs, 30(3), 1771-1800. doi: 10.1086/426800

McCall, L. (2008). The Complexity of Intersectionality. En E. Grabham, D. Cooper, J. Krishnadas & D. Herman (eds.), Intersectionality and Beyond: Law, Power and the Politics of Location (pp. 49-76). doi: 10.4324/9780203890882

McCombie, J. & Pike, M. (2011). The Problem of Young People Not in Employment, Education or Training: Is There a ‘Neet’ solution? En P. Arestis (ed.), Microeconomics, Macroeconomics and Economic Policy: Essays in Honour of Malcolm Sawyer, (pp. 54-71). doi: 10.1057/9780230313750_4

Naciones Unidas (1985). Asamblea General. Resoluciones aprobadas por la asamblea general durante el 40.° período de sesiones [en línea]. Recuperado de http://www.un.org/es/documents/ag/res/40/list40.htm

Naidoo, R. & Jamieson, I. (2005). Empowering Participants or Corroding Learning? Towards a Research Agenda on the Impact of Student Consumerism in Higher Education. Journal of Education Policy, 20(3), 267-281. doi: 10.1080/02680930500108585

Nelson, A. J. & Irwin, J. (2014). Defining What We Do - All Over Again: Occupational Identity, Technological Change, and the Librarian/Internet-Search Relationship. Academy of Management Journal, 57(3), 892-928. doi: 10.5465/amj.2012.0201

Norasakkunkit, V. & Uchida, Y. (2011). Psychological Consequences of Postindustrial Anomie on Self and Motivation Among Japanese Youth. Journal of Social Issues, 67(4), 774-786. doi: 10.1111/j.1540-4560.2011.01727.x

O’Reilly, J., Eichhorst, W., Gábos, A., Hadjivassiliou, K., Lain, D., Leschke, J., McGuinness, S., Kureková, L. M., Nazio, T., Ortlieb, R., Russell, H. & Villa, P. (2015). Five Characteristics of Youth Unemployment in Europe: Flexibility, Education, Migration, Family Legacies, and EU Policy. SAGE Open, 5(1), 1-19 p. doi: 10.1177/2158244015574962

OIT (2016). World Employment and Social Outlook 2016: Trends for Youth. http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---dgreports/---dcomm/---publ/documents/publication/wcms_513739.pdf

Pemberton, S. (2008). Tackling the NEET Generation and The Ability of Policy to Generate a 'NEET' Solution - Evidence From the UK. Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy, 26(1), 243-259. doi: 10.1068/c0654

Popkova, E., Meshkova, S., Karpunina, E., Karpushko, E. & Karpushko, M. (2016). Developing Countries as New Growth Poles of Post-Crisis Global Economy. Contemporary Economics, 10(2), 175-186. doi: 10.5709/ce.1897-9254.208

Reichborn-Kjennerud, K. & Svare, H. (2014). Entrepreneurial Growth Strategies: The Female Touch International. Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, 6(2), 181-199. doi: 10.1108/IJGE-04-2013-0043

Reimer, S. (2009). Geographies of Production III: Knowledge, Cultural Economies and Work (revisited). Progress in Human Geography, 33(5), 677-684. doi: 10.1177/0309132509104807

Ritzen, J. & Marconi, G. (2011). Internationalization in European Higher Education. International Journal of Innovation Science, 3(2), 83-100. doi: 10.1260/1757-2223.3.2.83

Samuelson, P. y Nordhaus, W. (2010). Economía con aplicaciones a Latinoamérica. McGraw-Hill, México.

Szabo, Z. K., Šoltés, M. & Herman, E. (2013). Innovative Capacity Yamp; Performance of Transition Economies: Comparative Study at the Level of Enterprises [Inovačná kapacita a výkonnost' tranzitívnych ekonomík: Komparatívna štúdia na úrovni firiem] E a M: Ekonomie a Management, 16(1), 52-68.

Thompson, R. (2011). Individualization and Social Exclusion: The Case of Young People Not in Education, Employment or Training. Oxford Review of Education, 37(6), 785-802. doi: 10.1080/03054985.2011.636507

Tolhurst, R., Leach, B., Price, J., Robinson, J., Ettore, E., Scott-Samuel, A., Kilonzo, N., Sabuni, L. P., Robertson, S., Kapilashrami, A., Bristow, K., Lang, R., Romao, F. & Theobald, S. (2012).
Intersectionality and Gender Mainstreaming in International Health: Using a Feminist Participatory Action Research Process to Analyze Voices and Debates From the Global South and North. Social Science and Medicine, 74(11), 1825-1832. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2011.08.025

Watanabe, C., Naveed, K., Neittaanmäki, P. & Tou, Y. (2016). Operationalization of Un-Captured GDP - Innovation Stream Under New Global Mega-Trends. Technology in Society, 45, 58-77. doi: 10.1016/j.techsoc.2016.02.008