Proceso innovación en pymes: comparación de empresas de servicios y manufactura

Main Article Content

Ronald Mora-Esquivel
Daniel Varela-Jiménez
Juan Carlos Leiva


Innovation process, SME, Service innovation, MManufacturing innovation, Information Technology Sector


The article seeks to provide an understanding of process innovation, an area of innovation research where there is less contribution in the literature.  The understanding of alternative ways in which companies innovate both their products and services, and organize and evaluate the results of their innovative activities is the focus of this study. To this end, a qualitative and explorative methodology was designed, focused on Small and Medium Enterprises (SME) from the information technology sector (ITS). It was then compared with a previous study of SME manufacturing in the food sector, both of which are in Costa Rica. Comprehensive, face to face interviews were implemented, with SME owners or managers who have recently launched an innovative service. The Nvivo version 10 software was used to process the information. The investigation results allowed the identification of a series of common phases and elements in the SME studied, for the development of innovations. Also, the existence of a series of differences and similarities in the innovation processes of these ITS SME with manufacturing SME was detected.


Download data is not yet available.
Abstract 829 | PDF Downloads 0


Agarwal, R., & Selen, W. (2011). Multi-dimensional nature of service innovation. International Journal of Operations & Production Management, 31(11), 1164–1192.

Bessant, J., & Tidd, J. (2011). Innovation and Entrepreneurship. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 1-589.

Brown, T. (2008). Design Thinking. Harvard Businnes Review, 86(6), 84–92.

Chesbrough, H. (2003). Open Innovation: The New Imperative for Creating and Profiting from Technology. Harvard Business School Press (Vol. 1). Boston.

Chesbrough, H. (2017). The Future of Open Innovation. Research-Technology Management, 60,1: 35-38.

Cooper, R. G. (1994). Perspective third-generation new product processes. The Journal of Product Innovation Management, 11(1), 3–14.

Cooper, R. G. (2008). Perspective: The Stage-Gate ® Idea-to-Launch Process—Update, What’s New, and NexGen Systems. Journal of Product Innovation Management, 25(3), 213–232.

Cooper, R. G. (2017). Idea-to-Launch Gating Systems: Better, Faster, and More Agile. Research-Technology Management, 60(1), 48-52.

Cornell University, INSEAD, & WIPO. (2017). The Global Innovation Index 2017.

Costa Rica Central Bank. (2017). Costa Rica: Exportaciones de Servicios y sus Principales Mercados de Destino, 1–8.

Costa Rica Central Bank (2018), " Producto Interno Bruto, Gasto de Consumo Final, Formación Bruta de Capital, Exportaciones e Importaciones ", (date of consultation: february, 2018).

Crossan, M. M., & Apaydin, M. (2010). A multi-dimensional framework of organizational innovation: A systematic review of the literature. Journal of Management Studies, 47(6), 1154–1191.

Den Hertog, P., Van der Aa, W., & De Jong, M. W. (2010). Capabilities for managing service innovation: towards a conceptual framework. Journal of service Management, 21(4), 490-514.

Dijksterhuis, E., & Silvius, G. (2017). The Design Thinking approach to projects. Journal of Modern Project Management, 4(3): 32-41.

Economia Industria y Comercio, M. (2015). Estado de Situación de las pyme en Costa Rica, 1–95.

Eisenhardt, K. M. (1989). Building theories from case study research. Academy of Management Review, 14(4), 532-550.

Escorsa, P., & Valls, J. (1998). Manual de Gestión e Innovación Tecnológica en la Empresa,23-44.

Ettlie, J. E., & Rosenthal, S. R. (2011). Service versus manufacturing innovation. Journal of Product Innovation Management, 28(2), 285–299.

Faherty, U., & Stephens, S. (2016). Innovation in micro enterprises: reality or fiction? Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, 23(2), 349-362.

Foro Económico Mundial. (2016). The Global Information Technology Report 2016 The Global Information Technology Report 2016 Innovating in the Digital Economy.

Galende, J. (2008). La organización del proceso de innovación en la empresa española. Economía industrial, (368), 169-185.

García Osorio, O., Quintero Quintero, J., & Arias-Pérez, J. (2014). Capacidades de innovación, desempeño innovador y desempeño organizacional en empresas del sector servicios. Cuadernos De Administración, 27(49), 86-108. doi:

Geldes, C., & Felzensztein, C. (2013). Marketing innovations in the agribusiness sector. Academia Revista Latinoamericana de Administración, 26(1),108-138.

Johnson, S., Menor, L., Roth, A., & Chase, R. (2000). A Critical Evaluation of the New Service Development Process: Integrating Service Innovation and Service Design. In New Service Development: Creating Memorable Experiences.

Kline, S. J., & Rosenberg, N. (1986). An Overview of Innovation. European Journal of Innovation Management, 38, 275–305.

Kotsemir, M., & Meissner, D. (2013). Conceptualizing the Innovation Process – Trends and Outlook. Munich Personal RePEc, (46504), 34.

Leavy, B. (2010). Design thinking – a new mental model of value innovation. Strategy & Leadership, 38(3), 5–14.

Leyer, M., Stumpf-Wollersheim, J., & Pisani, F. (2017). The influence of process-oriented organisational design on operational performance and innovation: a quantitative analysis in the financial services industry. International Journal of Production Research, 55(18): 5259-5270.

Matos, F., Aparecida, E., & Querido, D. A. (2016). Innovation development process in small and medium technology-based companies. RAI Revista de Administração E Inovação, 13(3), 176-189

Miles, M. B., Huberman, A. M., & Saldana, J. (2014). Qualitative data analysis. A Methods Sourcebook. (Third edition) Sage Publications, Inc, (California, USA), 1-381.

Mora-Esquivel,R. Lafuente, R. y Fonseca, L. (2016) Caracterización del proceso de innovación en empresas manufactureras del sector alimentario de Costa Rica: Un estudio exploratorio. Vicerrectoría de Investigación y Extensión. Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica. Informe final. Disponible en:

Namey, E., Guest, G., Thairu, L. and Johnson, L. (2008). Data Reduction Techniques for Large Qualitative Data Sets. In, G. Guest & K. MacQueen (Eds). Handbook for Team-Based Qualitative Research (pp.137-161). New York: Altamira Press.

Nijssen, E. J., Hillebrand, B., Vermeulen, P. A., & Kemp, R. G. (2006). Exploring product and service innovation similarities and differences. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 23(3), 241-251.

OECD Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. (2005). Oslo Manual: Guidelines for collecting and interpreting innovation data, Third edit, 166.

Oke, A. (2007). Innovation types and innovation management practices in service companies. International Journal of Operations & Production Management, 27(6), 564-587

Patton, M.Q. (2002) Qualitative Research and Evaluation Methods. (Third edition), Sage Publications, Inc. California, USA, 1-598.

Pettigrew, A. M. (1997). What is a processual analysis? Scandinavian Journal of Management, 13(4), 337–348.

Promocer (Promotora Costarricense de Comercio Exterior) (2018), "Portal Estadístico de Comercio Exterior", (date of consultation: february, 2018).

Randhawa, K., & Scerri, M. (2015). Service innovation: A review of the literature. In The handbook of service innovation (pp. 27-51). Springer, London.

Ries, E. (2011). El método Lean StartUp. Deusto: España.

Ritala, P., & Almpanopoulou, A. (2017). In defense of ‘eco’ in innovation ecosystem. Technovation, 60, 39-42.

Rosca, E., Arnold, M., & Bendul, J. C. (2017). Business models for sustainable innovation–an empirical analysis of frugal products and services. Journal of Cleaner Production, 162: 133-145.

Rothwell, R. (1994). Towards the Fifth-generation Innovation Process. International Marketing Review, 11(1), 7–31.

Saldaña, J. (2013). The Coding Manual for Qualitative researchers. (Second edition) Sage Publications Ltd, London.

Sampson, S., & Spring, M. (2012). Customer Roles In Service Supply Chains and Opportunities for Innovation. Journal of Supply Chain Management, 48(4), 30-50.

Tidd, J., & Hull, F. (2003). Managing Service Innovation: Variations of Best Practice. In Service innovation: organizational responses to technological opportunities and market imperatives. (pp. 1–34).

Vargo, S. L., & Lusch, R. F. (2008). Service-dominant logic: Continuing the evolution. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 36(1), 1–10.

Velasco, E., Zamanillo, I., & Gurutze, M. (2003). Evolución de los modelos sobre el proceso de innovación: Desde el modelo líneal hasta los sistemas de innovación. Decisiones Organizativas, 1–15.

Witell, L., Gebauer, H., Jaakkola, E., Hammedi, W., Patricio, L., & Perks, H. (2017). A bricolage perspective on service innovation. Journal of Business Research, 79, 290-298.

WB World Bank (2016).Informe Sobre el Desarrollo Mundial 2016: Dividendos Digitados Panorama General.

Yin, R. K. (2009). Case study research : design and methods. Applied social research methods series ; (Vol. 5.) London: SAGE.

Zeithmal, V., & Bitner, M. (2003). Services Marketing: integrating customer focus across the firm (3rd ed.). McGraw-Hill.