AD-minister <p>The Editorial Committee of the journal&nbsp;<strong>AD-MINISTER</strong>&nbsp;seeks to disseminate research on local and international developments in: Emerging Markets, Management, International Business, Human Resources, People at work, Accounting, Marketing, Auditing, CSR, Innovation, Multilatinas, Organizational Psychology, Knowledge Management, International Relations, Inclusive Markets, Entrepreneurship&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>AD-MINISTER</strong>&nbsp;is a biannual publication and manuscripts may be submitted at any time</p> Universidad EAFIT en-US AD-minister 1692-0279 <span>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:</span><br /><br /><ol type="a"><ol type="a"><li>Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a<a href="" target="_new">Creative Commons Attribution License</a> that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li></ol></ol><br /><ol type="a"><ol type="a"><li>Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li></ol></ol><br /><ol type="a"><li>Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See <a href="" target="_new">The Effect of Open Access</a>).</li></ol> Contemporary Female Entrepreneurship in Nicaragua <p>Women are important entrepreneurial actors within the Nicaraguan economic ecosystem.&nbsp; Majority female-owned firms comprise 32.7% of all urban Nicaraguan formal enterprises; these ownership rates far exceed the regional (21.8%) or global averages (14.5%). &nbsp;Within Nicaragua, self-employment rates for women (43.3%) surpass that of men (28.3%).&nbsp; This article describes the contemporary Nicaraguan entrepreneurial landscape for female-owned enterprises using the 2016 Nicaraguan Enterprise Survey of 333 formal sector urban-based firms conducted by the World Bank.&nbsp; Principal multivariate results include the concentration of female top management with majority female-ownership, the role of the informal sector in spawning formal female enterprises, and size constraints of female-owned enterprises.&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Michael J Pisani ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-12 2018-12-12 33 5 20 10.17230/ad-minister.33.1 Determining factors in the adoption of corporate social responsibility practices: a sectoral analysis of mexican franchises <p>This article investigates the practices of corporate social responsibility (CSR) in the food, commerce and specialized services sectors of 366 franchise systems operating in Mexico. Research variables were supported in resource-based theory and agency theory. To contrast the hypotheses, the techniques of discriminant analysis and logistic regression have been used as complementary. The results conclude that the discriminatory power of organizational factors on the adoption of CSR practices influences differently in each sector. The variables size, franchise age and royalties showed greater discriminatory power in the adoption of CSR practices in the food sector; the entry fee, franchise age and percentage in the trade sector. Only the variable entry fee showed discriminant power in the specialized services sector.</p> María Del Carmen Gaytán Ramírez Cesario Armando Flores Villanueva ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-12 2018-12-12 33 21 38 10.17230/ad-minister.33.2 Proceso innovación en pymes: comparación de empresas de servicios y manufactura <p>The article seeks to provide an understanding of process innovation, an area of innovation research where there is less contribution in the literature.&nbsp; The understanding of alternative ways in which companies innovate both their products and services, and organize and evaluate the results of their innovative activities is the focus of this study. To this end, a qualitative and explorative methodology was designed, focused on Small and Medium Enterprises (SME) from the information technology sector (ITS). It was then compared with a previous study of SME manufacturing in the food sector, both of which are in Costa Rica. Comprehensive, face to face interviews were implemented, with SME owners or managers who have recently launched an innovative service. The Nvivo version 10 software was used to process the information. The investigation results allowed the identification of a series of common phases and elements in the SME studied, for the development of innovations. Also, the existence of a series of differences and similarities in the innovation processes of these ITS SME with manufacturing SME was detected.</p> Ronald Mora-Esquivel Daniel Varela-Jiménez Juan Carlos Leiva ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-12 2018-12-12 33 39 64 10.17230/ad-minister.33.3 Cultural dimensions and entrepreneurial performance interaction in small and medium enterprises in Zimbabwe <p>Although culture is generally considered as a determinant of entrepreneurship, consensus is generally lacking on the precise influence of this variable on entrepreneurial performance in emerging economies. Using a quantitative approach, this confirmatory, cross-disciplinary study sought to investigate the effect of cultural dimensions, on entrepreneurial performance of among Small and Medium Enterprises in Zimbabwe. The independent variables were derived primarily from Hofstede's cultural dimensions and a total of 250 questionnaires were distributed to Small and Medium Enterprises in Zimbabwe. The research adopted a multisector approach and respondents were drawn from the ten provinces of Zimbabwe. To confirm the existence of a relationship between cultural dimensions and entrepreneurial performance, structural equation modeling, a confirmatory, multivariate technique, was employed, starting with representing the causal relationships between these variables in a pictorial form. The findings from this research are consistent with the propositions that the dimensions of culture have a significant and positive influence on entrepreneurial performance. The results also affirm the findings of previous studies that have been carried out on the influence of culture on entrepreneurial performance. Over and above the generic dimensions of culture, this study adds the mediating role of the propensity to act and perceived feasibility.</p> Watson Munyanyi, Mr Campion Chiromba Misheck Diza, Mr Rabson Magweva, Mr Dzikamai Muzvidziwa, Ms ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-12 2018-12-12 33 65 84 10.17230/ad-minister.33.4 Management of intangible assets of relational capital in Higher Education Institutions <p>Knowledge Management (CG) in Higher Education Institutions (HEI) can be analyzed through the identification of intangible assets. These assets are able to generate competitive advantage. One of these assets is Relational Capital (RC). RC involves interaction with different stakeholders, knowledge acquisition and knowledge transfer. The aim of this study is to characterize the interaction between relational capital categories in HEI.&nbsp; A case study methodology was used. Linear bivariate Pearson correlation and the proportion of shared variability were used.&nbsp; Among the main results, it was identified that strategic management was one of the main drivers that allow HEI to generate relevant characteristics.&nbsp; Strategic management also increases the level of institutional identity of the teachers linked to research groups. Likewise, quality teaching profile facilitates the establishment of trust relationships and the satisfaction of the requirements of different institutional stakeholders.</p> Natalia Marulanda Grisales Claudia Lorena Rincón Grajales Javier Echeverry Correa ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-12 2018-12-12 33 85 112 10.17230/ad-minister.33.5 Sustainable supply chain management in the food Industry <p>The article presented below has the objective of identifying the main factors that affect the sustainable supply chain management in the international food industry. For the methodological process, it was implemented the technique of content analysis of scientific documents published between 2006 and 2017 in the databases of SCOPUS, ISI Web Of Science, Science Direct and JSTOR. Among the findings are the existence of factors such as senior management, business strategy, organizational structure, measurement and monitoring systems for sustainability, environmental awareness, physical plant design, dynamic capabilities, policies and regulations, supplier management and customer attitude as part of the key elements for the sustainable supply chain management in food industry companies. In addition, the results allow us to recognize this approach as emerging, in which the need to develop networking among the actors involved in production is highlighted.</p> Edgar Guillermo Rodriguez Guevara ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-12 2018-12-12 33 113 134 10.17230/ad-minister.33.6 The Evolution of Interlocking Directorates Studies - A Global Trend Perspective <p>Directors’ corporate networks have been the subject of several studies that explore their different consequences, such as resource collaboration, transmission of practices, financial decisions, reduction of uncertainty, control and management, the firm’s reputation and individual interests. However, there is still no consensus about what these interlocking directorates (IDs) really do for firms and in what direction current research is following. This study carried out an extensive review of the literature in 75 papers (from 1969 to 2018) focused on IDs research, and as a result proposes two categories and four subcategories related to companies’ outcomes. The study found that the biggest contribution to firms, focuses on the description of network structures and control and management results, remarking the difference between North America IDs research and other regions, while shedding light on what IDs do for firms. It also identified gaps in research such as dissemination, globalization and collusion that need to have more analysis.</p> Miguel Ignacio Córdova ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-02-14 2019-02-14 33 30 30 10.17230/ad-minister.33.7