Ingeniería y Ciencia 2018-12-13T11:18:28-05:00 Heiner José Mercado Percia Open Journal Systems <p>Ingeniería y Ciencia is an open-access biannual scientific journal that publishes articles in the fields of Basic Science and Engineering.</p> Pollutant Remotion and Growth of Scenedesmus sp. on Wastewater from Tannery. A Comparison Between Free and Immobilized Cells 2018-12-13T11:18:28-05:00 A G Rosales C D Rodríguez M Ballen-Segura <p>Tannery wastewater are a public health and ecosystem hazard, due to the high concentration of contaminants such as chrome, sulfides and others. One way to treat these waters is by the use of microorganisms such as microalgae due to their capacity to use the inorganic compounds, as well as to accumulate metals and other contaminant substances; ability that could be improve with cellular immobilization. In this paper, the growth and removal of nitrogen, phosphorus and chrome by the microalgae <em>Scenedesmus sp</em>. were evaluated, comparing the rates between free and immobilized cells in a <em>Loofa</em> matrix. In this way, a higher growth in the free cells was obtained, compared to the immobilized ones. However, there were no significant differences between removals of contaminants. In both cases, higher reductions than 90% for <em>NO<sup>–</sup><sub>3</sub> , NH<sup>+</sup><sub>4</sub>, PO<sup>3</sup><sub>4</sub></em> and Chromium, as well as a significant reduction in BOD and COD (&gt; 97%) were obtained, probably by a synergy effect between algae and bacteria presents in the culture. Finally, lipids in both cases were higher than 20%, showing that this biomass could present a high potential as a raw material for the generation of biodiesel.&nbsp;</p> 2018-11-23T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Groundwater Physicochemical Characteristics’ Analysis of Chicú River Basin, Colombia, Using Hydrochemical Indicators and Multivariate Statistics 2018-12-13T11:18:22-05:00 Cristian Camilo López Velandia <p>The hydrochemical characteristics of an intramontane basin, located in the Bogotá Savannah, were evaluated using indicators and statistical methods, based on 10 monitoring wells physicochemical data, obtained during two sampling campaigns conducted in 2014, to establish the hydrochemical characteristics that are generated by the groundwater and sedimentary matrix interaction of the aquifer and determine the extracted groundwater quality conditions’ in the studied aquifer. To analyze the data, (1) hydrochemical indicators were applied to evaluate the groundwater and the sedimentary matrix interaction processes’ in the studied aquifer, which was corroborated by (2) principal components analysis, which allowed to disclose strong associations between the variables&nbsp;(<em>Na</em><sup>+</sup>, <em>Mg</em><sup>2+</sup>, <em>Ca</em><sup>2+</sup>, <em>SO</em><sub>4</sub><sup>2-</sup>&nbsp;y <em>HCO</em><sub>3</sub><sup>-</sup>),&nbsp;and <em>T</em>, p<em>H</em> y TDS variables influence on the hydrochemical process that govern the analyzed aquifer, in addition (3) physicochemical parameters were compared with the Colombian environmental regulations, referring to human consumption and irrigation use.&nbsp;As results, in water-sediment matrix was determined reverse cation exchange and minerals meteorization processes, present in the formations that conform the analyzed aquifer, likewise, the water samples obtained do not present quality characteristics that allow its use for irrigation or human consumption.</p> 2018-11-23T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Parameter Estimation of Two Mathematical Models for the Dynamics of Dengue and its Vector in Cali, Colombia 2018-12-13T11:18:25-05:00 J H Arias H J Martínez L S Sepúlveda O Vasilieva <p>Dengue is a viral infection transmitted by the female <em>Aedes aegypti</em> mosquito that lives in all tropical and subtropical regions of the planet. In Cali, Colombia, despite the controls that health officials say they are doing, this year, there have been more than 9,000 cases of dengue, of which some have been serious and others have become lethal. For the case of dengue virus transmission, mathematical models to simulate the dynamics of the infected population, either human or mosquito or both, allow a good understanding of the dynamics of the virus, so they are a good tool for monitoring and controlling the disease. However, for this tool to be really useful in a specific case, the models must be tailored to the particular characteristics of the region where you want to use them. In this paper, we present the fitting of two mathematical models to the urban area of Cali, Colombia. Initially, based on the natural behavior of the <em>Aedes aegypti</em> mosquito in a region as the area of interest, we estimate some of the parameters of the models, taking into account the existing literature on this topic. Subsequently, we estimate the others parameters as the (non-linear) least squares solution that best fits the output of the models to the data of reported cases of dengue, according to the Municipal Secretary of Cali, in 2010.</p> 2018-11-23T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Implementation of a Non-Invasive Bioprospecting Protocol for Isolation of Lactobacillus from Feces of Hens Under Foraging Conditions 2018-12-13T11:18:26-05:00 Simón Robledo-Cardona Sabina Ramírez-Hincapié Javier Correa-Álvarez <p>In animal production, probiotics seek to replace the use of antibiotics, while diminishing mortality and morbidity rates to raise productivity. Probiotics constitute a natural alternative that, in contrast with antibiotics,&nbsp;neither produces pathogen resistance, nor leaves chemical residues in the&nbsp;final product. Several bacteria, including some belonging to the genus&nbsp;<em>Lactobacillus</em> have been described as probiotics with high potential. A&nbsp;non-invasive bioprospecting protocol aimed for the isolation and characterization&nbsp;of lactobacilli from chicken feces was established. Fecal samples&nbsp;were collected from the ground. These were diluted and cultured in LAB&nbsp;selective medium. Colonies were identified by three methods: Gram stain,&nbsp;MALDI-TOF MS and sequencing of 16S rRNA gene. An initial probiotic&nbsp;potential of lactobacilli isolates was determined via antagonism tests using&nbsp;five enteropathogen reference strains: <em>Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus&nbsp;faecium, Candida albicans, Pseudomonas</em> spp. and <em>Salmonella</em> spp. 24&nbsp;isolates belonging to four Lactobacillus species were identified by MALDITOF&nbsp;MS. BLAST of 16S rRNA gene of eight randomly selected isolates,&nbsp;confirmed MALDI-TOF MS identification. Five of these eight isolates&nbsp;inhibited the growth of at least one of the pathogenic strains used, three&nbsp;isolates of <em>Lactobacillus</em> <em>plantarum</em> and two of <em>Lactobacillus salivarius.</em> Our&nbsp;protocol achieved 21 lactobacilli per 100 isolates performance, greatly surpassing&nbsp;the normal percentage of lactobacilli in chicken gut microbiome,&nbsp;that so, its implementation would facilitate the isolation and identification&nbsp;of new probiotic strains from feces.&nbsp;</p> 2018-11-23T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Identification of Fusarium cf. Verticillioides as The Causal Agent of Pokka Boheng Disease in Sugarcane in the Department of Antioquia, Colombia 2018-12-13T11:18:27-05:00 Juliana Giraldo-Arias Santiago Celis-Zapata Nicolás D Franco-Sierra Juan J Arroyave-Toro Claudia Jaramillo-Mazo Javier Correa-Álvarez <p class="normal">The cultivation of sugarcane represents an important part in the Colombian economy due to the diverse applications in industries like liquor, food, paper and biofuels. Sugarcane worldwide production is affected by the presence of phytopathogenic agents, mainly filamentous fungi such&nbsp;as <em>Physalospora tucumanensis</em> (red rot disease) and <em>Fusarium</em> spp. To date in Colombia, Pokka boheng disease whose causal agent is the fungus <em>Fusarium verticillioides</em>, has not been reported, which is why it is necessary to identify appropriately this microorganism, responsible for losses in productivity and food contamination. In order to isolate and identify the infectious agent from symptomatic tissues, disinfection and culture in liquid and solid culture mediums were performed in malt extract (2%) and yeast extract (0.2%) both liquid and solid, for 7 days. After several replicates in agar plate, a purification was made along with a morphological characterization based on the shape and color of the mycelium, as well as the type of spores generated. Additionally, the genetic material was extracted and gene markers (ITS, Elongation Factor 1-<em>α</em> (EF) and <em>β</em>-Tubulin (Btub)) were amplified by PCR. Then, DNA sequencing was used to obtain the data to make a phylogenetic reconstruction by probabilistic methods (Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Inference). The isolated strain, named as EA-FP0013 was located in the Fujikuroi complex group, with high probable identity to <em>Fusarium verticillioides</em>. Thus, early and species-specific identification of these fungal isolates by molecular methods may allow the timely diagnosis of emerging pathophysiological diseases of interest in the region, and thus propose the respective control strategies.&nbsp; &nbsp;</p> 2018-11-23T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Development and Evaluation of a LightWeight Electronic Device for the Sampling of Volatile Organic Compounds in the Vertical Coupled to a Captive Metorological Globe 2018-12-13T11:18:21-05:00 M Solano Murillo W Gutiérrez López M García Espinosa R Torres Jardón <p>An understanding of the vertical profile of the composition of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in polluted urban areas can help to better understand the impact of these compounds on air quality and in the development of better control strategies. To facilitate these types of measurements and they have the necessary reliability, a programmable, lightweight and lowcost VOCs miniaturized sampling device was designed and integrated, that allows to anchor several of them at different heights in the string of a captive instrumented meteorological balloon and also a start/stop control of the samplers that can be operated from the ground. Simultaneous sampling ensures that the vertical profile of the captured VOCs, represents with better certainty the expected differences in the concentration of these compounds due to the influence of the urban canopy layer and urban activity. Each sampling device consists of an electronic circuit that receives the start or stop signal of the air suction mini-pump from a master control system that is on the surface and that allows radio frequency operation. The capture of VOCs is carried out by packed cartridges with an appropriated adsorbent medium for this purpose. The feasibility of the miniaturized system was demonstrated in a short sampling campaign at the levels 0 m, 50 m, and 100 m above ground at a site southwest of the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City during April 2017. The profiles of the determined VOCs concentrations were compared with previous records obtained at the surface level and in vertical profiles using less dynamic sampling methods, demonstrating the benefit of knowing the concentration at different heights in the interpretation of atmospheric chemistry associated with these profiles.</p> 2018-11-23T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Modern Biotechnology for Agricultural Development in Colombia 2018-12-13T11:18:24-05:00 Diego F Villanueva-Mejía <p>Colombia is currently one of the most promising countries with regard to its potential for agricultural development and for generating food supply for current and future human generations. This is owing to factors such as availability of land, water, topographical diversity, as well as political factors. Nevertheless, Colombia will reach this full potential if it adopts available technologies that can meet the current global challenges faced by the agriculture in the 21st century: among others, world population growth, increase in average life expectancy, high degree of malnutrition, climate change, wrong agricultural practices. Here is presented how modern biotechnology is an important ally as a wide range of technologies and innovative systems can be applied where they are most needed: for increasing cultivation productivity, resisting both biotic and abiotic factors, and ensuring food safety. In this study is showed evidence with regard to significant benefits of adopting biotechnological crops to contribute to food safety and how they are already being implemented in both developed and developing countries. Using modern technology, there are open opportunities for the country in search of circular bio-based economy, strengthen its food sovereignty and to serve as an agricultural breadbasket to Latin America and the World.</p> 2018-11-23T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##