Mujeres emprendedoras en América Latina El nivel educativo y la probabilidad de emprender

Main Article Content

Monserrat Serio


Entrepeneurship, Level of education, Women, Latin America


Este trabajo analiza la influencia de la educación formal alcanzada por las mujeres de América Latina en la probabilidad de convertirse en emprendedoras. Para el estudio se utilizaron datos de la Encuesta de Talento Empresarial de 2012 del Banco de Desarrollo de América Latina. Para mujeres activas, se estiman modelos de probabilidad de ser emprendedoras procurando ajustar por el sesgo de selección de educación con variables instrumentales. También se ajusta por sesgo de autoselección incluyendo mujeres inactivas en el modelo de Heckman de dos etapas. Los resultados sugieren para las mujeres una relación negativa entre el nivel educativo y la probabilidad de emprender. En particular, esto se observa con mayor fuerza en el caso de emprendedoras por necesidad y cuenta propistas.


Download data is not yet available.
Abstract 175 | PDF (Español) Downloads 338


Adda, J., Dustmann, C. y Stevens, K. (2017). The career costs of children. Journal of Political Economy, 125(2), 293-337.

Alecchi, B. A. (2020). Toward realizing the potential of Latin America’s women entrepreneurs: An analysis of barriers and challenges. Latin American Research Review, 55(3).

Banco de Desarrollo de América Latina -CAF (2013). Encuesta CAF 2012: Talento empresarial. CAF.

Bengtsson, O., Sanandaji, T. y Johannesson, M. (2017). The psychology of the entrepreneur and the gender gap in entrepreneurship. En A. N. Link (Ed.), Gender and Entrepreneurial Activity (pp.6-45. Edward Elgar Publishing.

Berniell, I., Berniell, L., de la Mata, D., Edo, M., Fawaz, Y., Machado, M. P. y Marchionni, M. (2021a). Motherhood and the allocation of talent. Technical report, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).

Berniell, I., Berniell, L., de la Mata, D., Edo, M. y Marchionni, M. (2021b). Gender gaps in labor informality:The motherhood effect. Journal of Development Economics, 150:102599.

Berniell, I., Berniell, L., de la Mata, D., Edo, M. y Marchionni, M. (2021c). Motherhood and flexible jobs: Evidence from Latin American countries. CAF, Working Paper N.o 2021/01.

Block, J. H., Fisch, C. O. y van Praag, M. (2017). The schumpeterian entrepreneur: A review of the empirical evidence on the antecedents, behaviour and consequences of innovative entrepreneurship. Industry and Innovation, 24(1), 61-95.

Brixiová, Z. y Kangoye, T. (2018). Skills as a barrier to women’s start ups: A model with evidence from Eswatini. Technical report, ERSA, Working Paper 768.

Brush, C., Ali, A., Kelley, D. y Greene, P. (2017). The influence of human capital factors and context on women’s entrepreneurship: Which matters more? Journal of Business Venturing Insights, 8, 105-113.

Cabrera, E. M. y Mauricio, D. (2017). Factors affecting the success of women’s entrepreneurship: A review of literature. International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, 9(1), 31-65.

Campos, F., Goldstein, M., McGorman, L., Munoz-Boudet, A. M. y Pimhidzai, O. (2015). Breaking the metal ceiling: Female entrepreneurs who succeed in male-dominated sectors. World Bank Policy Research, Working Paper, (7503). abstract=2698440

Cavada, M. C., Bobek, V. y Macek, A. (2017). Motivation factors for female entrepreneurship in Mexico. Entrepreneurial Business and Economics Review, 5(3), 133-148.

Cramer, J. S., Hartog, J., Jonker, N. y Van Praag, C. M. (2002). Low risk aversion encourages the choice for entrepreneurship: an empirical test of a truism. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 48(1), 29-36.

Croson, R. y Gneezy, U. (2009). Gender differences in preferences. Journal of Economic Literature, 47(2), 448-74.

Dolinsky, A. L., Caputo, R. K., Pasumarty, K. y Quazi, H. (1993). The effects of education on business ownership: A longitudinal study of women. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 18(1), 43-53.

Dutta, N. y Mallick, S. (2018). Enabling women entrepreneurs: Exploring factors that mitigate the negative impact of fertility rates on female entrepreneurship. Kyklos, 71(3), 402-432.

Dutta, N. y Sobel, R. S. (2018). Entrepreneurship and human capital: The role of financial development. International Review of Economics & Finance, 57, 319-332. https://

Elam, A. B., Brush, C. G., Greene, P. G., Baumer, B., Dean, M., Heavlow, R. y Global Entrepreneurship Research Association (2019). Women’s Entrepreneurship Report 2018/2019. gem-20182019-womens-entrepreneurship-report

Ellis, A. N., Orlando, M. B., Muñoz Boudet, A. M., Piras, C., Reimao, M., Cutura, J., Frickenstein, J., Perez, A. y de Castro, O. (2010). Women’s economic opportunities in the formal private sector in Latin America and the Caribbean: A focus on entrepreneurship. The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/The World Bank, Washington, DC.

Fairlie, R. W. y Fossen, F. M. (2020). Defining opportunity versus necessity entrepreneurship: Two components of business creation. En R. Fairlie y F. Fossen (Eds.), Change at home, in the labor market, and on the job (pp. 253-289). Emerald Publishing Limited. 1108/S0147-912120200000048008

Fielden, S. L. y Davidson, M. J. (2005). The way forward for women business owners. En S. Fielden y M. Davidson (Eds.), International handbook of women and small business entrepreneurship (pp. 264-272). Edward Elgar.

Galvao, A., Marques, C. y Ferreira, J. J. (2020). The role of entrepreneurship education and training programmes in advancing entrepreneurial skills and new ventures. European Journal of Training and Development, 44(6/7), 595-614. https: //

Hallward-Driemeier, M. (2013). Enterprising women: Expanding opportunities in Africa (Washington: Agence Fran¸caise de D´eveloppement and World Bank). http://hdl.

Heller, L. (2010). Mujeres emprendedoras en América Latina y el Caribe: realidades, obstáculos y desafíos. Technical report, Naciones Unidas Comisión Económica para América Latina y el Caribe (CEPAL), Santiago de Chile. 11362/5818

Kleven, H., Landais, C., Posch, J., Steinhauer, A. y ZweimWüller, J. (2019). Child penalties across countries:
Evidence and explanations. AEA Papers and Proceedings, 109, 122-26.
Kobeissi, N. (2010). Gender factors and female entrepreneurship: International evidence and policy
implications. Journal of International Entrepreneurship, 8(1), 1-35. https: //
Le, A. T. (1999). Empirical studies of self-employment. Journal of Economic Surveys, 13(4), 381-416.

Lee, D. S., McCrary, J., Moreira, M. J. y Porter, J. (2020). Valid t-ratio Inference for IV. NBER, Working Paper 2010.05058.

Li, C., Ahmed, N. y Qalati, S. (2019). Impact of gender-specific causes on women entrepreneurship: An opportunity structure for entrepreneurial women in rural areas. Journal of Entrepreneurship & Organization Management, 8(1), 1-9.

Lundborg, P., Plug, E. y Rasmussen, A. W. (2017). Can women have children and a career? IV evidence from IVF treatments. American Economic Review, 107(6), 1611-37.

Martínez-Rodríguez, I., Quintana-Rojo, C., Gento, P. y Callejas-Albiñana, F.-E. (2021). Public policy recommendations for promoting female entrepreneurship in Europe. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 1-28.

Micozzi, A. y Micozzi, F. (2020). The entrepreneurial intention in female university students: An Italian case. En H. Lawton, C. Henry, H. Etzkowitz y A. Poulovassilis (Eds.), Gender, Science and Innovation (pp. 305-327). Edward Elgar Publishing.

Mishra, S. K. y Satapathy, D. P. (2021). Dilemma of career decision among young generation from family business-a qualitative study. Psychology and Education Journal, 58(4), 1139-1144.

Neegaard, H. y Carlsen, A. (2021). Out of the Fire and into the Frying Pan. En M. McAdam y J. A. Cunningham (Eds.), Women and global entrepreneurship. Contextualizing everyday experiences (pp. 130-148). Routledge.

Organización de las Naciones Unidas (2019). Women’s entrepreneurship report: Education and finance for successful entrepreneurship in Africa. Technical report, UN Economic Commission for Africa (ECA).

Organización para la Cooperación y el Desarrollo Económicos (2021). The missing entrepreneurs 2021: Policies for inclusive entrepreneurship and selfemployment. Technical report, OECD/European Commission. https://doi. org/10.1787/71b7a9bb-en

Organización Internacional del Trabajo (2021). ILOSTAT database. OIT.

Ojong, N., Simba, A. y Dana, L.-P. (2021). Female entrepreneurship in Africa: A review, trends, and future research directions. Journal of Business Research, 132, 233-248.

Orhan, M. y Scott, D. (2001). Why women enter into entrepreneurship: An explanatory model. Women in Management Review. 09649420110395719

Poschke, M. (2013). Who becomes an entrepreneur? Labor market prospects and occupational choice. Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, 37(3), 693-710.

Reza, M., Manurung, D., Kolmakov, V. y Alshebami, A. (2020). Impact of education and training on performance of women entrepreneurs in Indonesia: Moderating effect of personal characteristics. Management Science Letters, 10(16), 3923-3930.

Ribes-Giner, G., Moya-Clemente, I., Cervelló-Royo, R. y Perello-Marin, M. R. (2019). Wellbeing indicators affecting female entrepreneurship in OECD countries. Quality & Quantity, 53(2), 915-933.

Rosca, E., Agarwal, N. y Brem, A. (2020). Women entrepreneurs as agents of change: A comparative analysis of social entrepreneurship processes in emerging markets. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 157, 120067.

Secretaría Permanente del SELA (2010). Desarrollando mujeres empresarias: La necesidad de replantear políticas y programas de género en el desarrollo de pymes. Technical report. documental/bdd/34296/desarrollando-mujeresempresarias-la-necesidad-de-replantear-politicas-y-programas-de-genero-en-el-desarrollo-de-pymes

Terjesen, S. y Amorós, J. E. (2010). Female entrepreneurship in Latin America and the Caribbean: Characteristics, drivers and relationship to economic development. The European Journal of Development Research, 22(3), 313-330. 10.1057/ejdr.2010.13

Touissate, H. y Azdimousa, H. (2021). Women entrepreneurship in the MENA region: Factors influencing entrepreneurial motivation. International Journal of Financial Accountability, Economics, Management, and Auditing (IJFAEMA), 3(3), 264-272.

van der Sluis, J., van Praag, M. y Vijverberg, W. (2008). Education and entrepreneurship selection and performance: A review of the empirical literature. Journal of Economic Surveys, 22(5), 795-841.

Weeks, J. R. y Seiler, D. (2005). Women’s entrepreneurship in Latin America: An exploration of current knowledge. Inter-America Development Bank. Washington, DC Sustainable Development Department. Technical Papers Series.

World Bank (2019). Profiting from parity: Unlocking the potential of women’s business in Africa.

Zellweger, T., Sieger, P. y Halter, F. (2011). Should I stay or should I go? Career choice intentions of students with family business background. Journal of Business Venturing, 26(5), 521-536. 001

Zisser, M. R., Johnson, S. L., Freeman, M. A. y Staudenmaier, P. J. (2019). The relationship between entrepreneurial intent, gender and personality. Gender in Management: An International Journal, 34(8), 665-684. GM-08-2018-0105