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Power system transient stability, Richardson extrapolation, dynamic equations
The numerical solution of transient stability problems is a key element for electrical power system operation. The classical model for multi-machine systems is defined as a set of non-linear differential equations for the rotor speed and the generator angle for each electrical machine, this mathematical model is usually known as the swing equations. This paper presents how to use direct Richardson extrapolation of several orders for the numerical solution of the swing equations and compares it with other commonly used implicit and explicit solvers such as Runge-Kutta, trapezoidal, Shampine and Radau methods. A numerical study on a simple three machine system is used to illustrate the performance and implementation of algebraic Richardson extrapolation coupled to several solution methods. Normally, the order of accuracy of any numerical solution can be increased when Richardson Extrapolation is used. A numerical example is provided for an electrical grid consisting of three machines and nine buses undergoing a disturbance. It is shown that in this case Richardson extrapolation effectively increases the order of accuracy of the explicit methods making them competitive with the implicit methods.
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