The SDGs as an Operational Framework for Post COVID-19 Response and Recovery

Main Article Content

Mahmoud Mohieldin https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5671-2371
Miral Shehata https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2122-5885

Keywords

COVID-19, Pandemic, Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), Development Policies, Crisis

Abstract

Despite progress on a number of goals, the world was not moving fast enough towards achieving the Sustainable Development Goals in the pre-COVID era. The Decade of Action started with the hit of the COVID-19 crisis, which stressed the urgent need to tackle the root causes of vulnerabilities. This paper explores the roles of different critical actors towards achieving the sustainable development goals (SDGs), namely national governments; local and regional governments and local communities; and the business sector as well as the interactions among these actors that facilitate the implementation of the SDGs.


The paper also discusses how the SDGs provide an operational framework for building back better during the response and recovery phases from the crisis and how the COVID-19 pandemic has changed the policy scene to reimagine the roles played by the different actors.


Lastly, the paper elaborates on three critical factors that would shape the degree of progress in the next decade, namely dependable data, adequate finance and effective implementation of development policies.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.
Abstract 49 | PDF Downloads 0

References

Abidoye, B., Felix, J., Kapto, S. & Patterson, L. (2021). ‘Leaving No One Behind: Impact of COVID-19 on the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)’. New York, NY and Denver CO: United Nations Development Programme and Frederick S. Pardee Center for International Futures..

Allen, C., Metternicht, G., Wiedmann, T. (2018). ‘Initial progress in implementing the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs): a review of evidence from countries’, Sustainability Science 13, p.1453–1467.

Atkinson, L., Renouf, C., Atkinson, L., Maibach, E., Leiserowitz, A (2016). ‘The Consumer as Climate Activist’, International Journal of Communication 10, p.4759–4783.

Barbier, E. B., & Burgess, J. C. (2020). ‘Sustainability and development after COVID-19’, World development, 135, 105082. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2020.105082.

Benedek, D., Gemayel, E., Senhadji, A., Tieman, A. (April 2021). A Post-Pandemic Assessment of the Sustainable Development Goals. IMF Discussion Note, SDN/2021/003.

Benz, A., Kemmerzell, J., Knodt, M., Tews, A. (2015). ‘The trans-local dimension of local climate policy. Sustaining and transforming local knowledge orders through trans- local action in three German cities’, Urban Research and Practice 8, p.319-335.

Bhargava, V., Elmendorf, E., Gray, S., Kafka, B., Ritchie, D., Little, S. (June 2019). Expanding Civil Society Contributions to the Governance Agendas of the Sustainable Development Goals and International Financial Institutions. Partnership for Transparency. Washington.

Biermann, F., Kanie, N., Kim, RE. (2017). ‘Global governance by goalsetting: the novel approach of the UN sustainable development goals’, Curr Opin Environ Sustain 26–27, p.26–31.

Coady, D., Parry, I., Le, N.-P., and Shang, B. (2019), ‘Global Fossil Fuel Subsidies Remain Large. An Update Based on Country-Level Estimates’, IMF Working Paper 19/89.

Corella, B. S., Nicolas, J. E. A., Veldkamp, T. (2020). Civil Society And The 2030 Agenda: What can we learn from the multi-stakeholder initiatives that have been established at national level and how can we better support them? European Commission
Council of the European Union (July 2020). Special European Council, 17-21 July 2020.[online]. Available at: https://www.consilium.europa.eu/en/meetings/european-council/2020/07/17-21/ [Accessed 19 January 2021],

Dalby, S., Horton, S., and Mahon, R. (2019). ‘Global governance challenges in achieving the Sustainable Development Goals’, in S Dalby, S Horton, R Mahon & D Thomaz (eds), Achieving the Sustainable Development Goals: Global Governance Challenges, 1st ed. Routledge, Abingdon, Oxon ; New York, NY : Routledge, 2019, pp.1-18| Series: Routledge studies in sustainable development. Series: Routledge studies in sustainable development,

Dasgupta, P. (2021). The Economics of Biodiversity: The Dasgupta Review. London: HM Treasury.

De Mello, Luiz (2016), ‘Co-ordination and implementation of the Sustainable Development Goals: The role of the centres of government’, in Patrick Love (ed.), Debate the Issues: New Approaches to Economic Challenges, OECD Publishing, Paris
Democracy Development Programme (DDP) (March 2016). The Roles of Civil Society in Localising the Sustainable Development Goals. African Civil Society Circle (ACSC). Position Paper,

Dietz, S., Byrne, R., Gardiner, D., Gostlow, G., Jahn, V., Nachmany, M., Noels, J., Sullivan, R. (2020). TPI State of Transition Report 2020. Transition Pathway Initiatives 2020,

Fenton, P., Gustafsson, S., (2017). ‘Moving from high-level words to local action— governance for urban sustainability in municipalities’, Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 26–27, p.129–133.

Global Investors for Sustainable Development (GISD) Alliance (July 2020). Renewed, Recharged and Reinforced: Urgent actions to harmonize and scale sustainable finance [online]. Available at: https://www.gisdalliance.org/sites/default/files/2020- 09/Renewed%2C%20Recharged%20and%20Reinforced%20%28GISD%202020%29_vF. pdf [Accessed 15 October 2020].

Gonzalez-Perez, M.A Mohieldin, M., Hult, T.G. & Velez-Ocampo, J. (2021) COVID-19, sustainable development challenges of Latin America and the Caribbean, and the potential engines for an SDGs-based recovery. Management Research: Journal of the Iberoamerican Academy of Management. Vol. 19(1), pp. 22-37. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1108/MRJIAM-12-2020-1119.

Government of Republic of Korea (July 2020). The Korean New Deal National Strategy for a Great Transformation. Press Release. [online]. Available at: https://english.moef.go.kr/pc/selectTbPressCenterDtl.do?boardCd=N0001&seq=4948 [Accessed 19 January 2021].

Gustafsson, S., Ivner, J. (2017). Implementing the global sustainable goals (SDGs) into municipal strategies applying an integrated approach, in Leal Filho W (ed), Handbook of sustainability science and research. Springer International Publishing, Berlin, pp 301–316.

HM Treasury (November 2020). Interim Report: Interim Report of the UK’s Joint Government Regulator TCFD Taskforce. United Kingdom: Crown.

International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD) SDG Knowledge Hub (August 2017). Do We Need To Engage Civil Society Organizations in Implementing SDGs? Guest Commentary [online]. Available at: https://sdg.iisd.org/commentary/guest-articles/do-we- need-to-engage-civil-society-organizations-in-implementing-sdgs/ [Accessed 1 November 2020].

International Monetary Fund (IMF) (2015). Making Public Investment More Efficient. IMF Policy Paper, Washington, DC.

International Monetary Fund (IMF) (October 2018). Fiscal Monitor: Managing Public Wealth. Washington, DC.

International Monetary Fund (IMF) (October 2020a). World Economic Outlook, October 2020: A Long and Difficult Ascent. Washington, DC.

International Monetary Fund (IMF) (October 2020b). Fiscal Monitor: Policies for the Recovery. Washington, DC.

Jafino. B. A., Walsh, B., Rozenberg, J., Hallegatte, S. (September 2020). ‘Revised Estimates of the Impact of Climate Change on Extreme Poverty by 2030’, World Bank Group Policy Research Working Paper 9417. World Bank Group 2020.

Joe Biden Presidential Campaign (2020). The Biden Plan to Build a Modern, Sustainable Infrastructure and an Equitable Clean Energy Future. [online]. Available at: https://joebiden.com/clean-energy/ [Accessed 15 January 2021]

Khanna, P. (2010). ‘Beyond City Limits: The age of nations is over. The new urban age has begun’, Foreign Policy [online]. Available at: https://foreignpolicy.com/2010/08/06/beyond-city-limits/ [Accessed 15 October 2020].

Kiron,D., Unruh, G., Kruschwitz, N., Reevers, M. (2016) Sustainability at a crossroads: Progress Toward Our Common Future in Uncertain Times. MIT Sloan Management Review & The Boston Consulting Group. [online]. Available at: https://sloanreview.mit.edu/projects/corporate-sustainability-at-a-crossroads/ [Accessed 16 October 2020].

KPMG (2017). The Road Ahead. The KPMG Survey of Corporate Responsibility Reporting 2017 [online] Available at: https://assets.kpmg/content/dam/kpmg/xx/pdf/2017/10/kpmg-survey-of-corporate- responsibility-reporting-2017.pdf [Accessed 15 October 2020].

Krellenberg, K., Bergsträßer, H., Bykova, D., Kress, N., Tyndall, K. (2019). ‘Urban Sustainability Strategies Guided by the SDGs—A Tale of Four Cities’, Sustainability, 11, 1116.

Long, G. (2018). How should civil society stakeholders report their contribution to the implementation of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development? UN DESA.

Martinuzzi, A., Schönherr, N., (2019). ‘Introduction: The Sustainable Development Goals and the Future of Corporate Sustainability’, in A Martinuzzi & N Schönherr (eds), Business and the Sustainable Development Goals: Measuring and Managing Corporate Impacts. Switzerland: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 1-17.

McKinsey Quarterly (April 2020). Purpose: Shifting from why to how: What is your company’s core reason for being, and where can you have a unique, positive impact on society? [online]. Available at: https://www.mckinsey.com/business- functions/organization/our-insights/purpose-shifting-from-why-to-how [Accessed 16.

Mohieldin, M. (15 March, 2021). IMF Executive Director Letter: UN goals offer best route to combat climate crisis. Financial Times [online] Available at: https://www.ft.com/content/5faccf6c-01f2-4295-8a3c-ba7940e26ff6 [Accessed 22 May 2021]
Mohieldin, M. (2020, August 18). SDGs, Finance, and Crises: Lessons Learned and Unlearned [Conference presentation]. Durham Centre for Islamic Economics and Finance. Available at: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/344408993_SDGs_Finance_and_CrisesLessons_Learned_and_Unlearned?channel=doi&linkId=5f724e3fa6fdcc008644cd81&showFulltext=true [Accessed 26 May 2021] .

Mohieldin, M. (2021, May 17). A Global Economic System in Turmoil: What is at Stake for the MENA region? [Conference presentation]. Economic Research Forum 27th Annual Conference. Available at: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/351634820_A_Global_Economic_System_in_Turmoil_What_is_at_Stake_for_the_MENA_region [Accessed 19 May 2020].

Mohieldin, M. (21 April, 2021). Climate change and rigid policies. Ahram Online. [online] Available at: https://english.ahram.org.eg/NewsContent/4/0/407642/Opinion/0/Climate-change-and-rigid-policies.aspx [Accessed 22 May 2021]
Mohieldin, M.; Piedrahita-Carvajal, D.; Velez-Ocampo, J. & Gonzalez-Perez, M.A. (2021) Sustainable development challenges in Latin America and the Caribbean. In: Gonzalez-Perez, MA. (Ed) Regenerative and Sustainable Futures for Latin America and the Caribbean: Collective action for a region with a better tomorrow.

Monitor Deloitte (July 2020). COVID-19: A Wake-Up Call to the Future of Management in the Era of the SDGs [online]. Available at: https://www2.deloitte.com/content/dam/Deloitte/jp/Documents/strategy/md/jp-md- COVID19-wakeup-sdgs-en.pdf [Accessed 17 October 2020].

Monkelbaan, J. (2019). Governance for the Sustainable Development Goals: Exploring an Integrative Framework of Theories, Tools, and Competencies. Switzerland, Springer. | Series: Sustainable Development Goals: Partnership for the Goals
Morita, K., Okitasari, M., Masuda, H. (2020). ‘Analysis of national and local governance systems to achieve the sustainable development goals: case studies of Japan and Indonesia’, Sustainability Science 15, p.179–202.

Nelson, J. (2018). ‘Collective Action on Business Standards, Goals, and Metrics to Achieve Scale and Impact for the SDGs’, in R Desai, H Kato, H Kharas and J McArthur (eds.), From Summits to Solutions: Innovations in Implementing the Sustainable Development Goals. Washington D.C., Brookings Institution Press.

New Zealand Government (2020). New Zealand first in the world to require climate risk reporting [Press release]. 15 September. Available at: https://www.beehive.govt.nz/release/new-zealand-first-world-require-climate-risk-reporting [Accessed 1 December 2020].

OECD (2020a). A Territorial Approach to the Sustainable Development Goals: Synthesis report. OECD Urban Policy Reviews, OECD Publishing, Paris.

OECD (2020b). Global Outlook on Financing for Sustainable Development 2021: A New Way to Invest for People and Planet. OECD Publishing, Paris.

Okitasari, M., Sunam, R., Mishra, R., Masuda, H., Morita, K., Takemoto, Kanie, N. (2019). ‘Governance and national implementation of the 2030 agenda : lessons from voluntary national reviews’, United Nations Univ Inst Adv Study Sustain Policy Br 18:1–4.

Oxford Poverty & Human Development Initiative (OPHI) and United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) (2020). Global Multidimensional Poverty Index 2020 Charting pathways out of multidimensional poverty: Achieving the SDGs.

PwC (2015). Make It Your Business. Engaging with the Sustainable Development Goals [online]. Available at: https://www.pwc.com/gx/en/sustainability/SDG/SDG%20Research_ FINAL.pdf. Date [Accessed 15 October 2020].

PwC. (2019). Creating a strategy for a better world: How the Sustainable Development Goals can provide the framework for business to deliver progress on our global challenges. [online]. Available at: https://www.pwc.com/gx/en/services/sustainability/sustainable-development-goals/sdg- challenge-2019.html#cta-1. [Accessed 16 October 2020].

PwC. (2020). Asset and wealth management revolution: The power to shape the future. [online]. Available at: https://www.pwc.com/gx/en/industries/financial-services/asset-management/publications/asset-wealth-management-revolution-2020.html. [Accessed 26 May 2021].

Rajan, R., (2020). What Should Corporations Do? Project Syndicate [online] Available at: https://www.project-syndicate.org/commentary/what-are-corporations-for-stakeholders- or-shareholders-by-raghuram-rajan-2020- [Accessed 16 October 2020].

Schönherr, N., Reisch L., Farsang, A., Temmes, A., Tharani, A., and Martinuzzi, A. (2019). ‘Implementing Impact Measurement and Management’, in A Martinuzzi & N Schönherr (eds), Business and the Sustainable Development Goals: Measuring and Managing Corporate Impacts. Switzerland: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 113-128.

Schwartz, G., Fouad, M., Hansen, T., and Verdier, G. (2020). Well Spent: How Strong Infrastructure Governance Can End Waste in Public Investment. International Monetary Fund. Washington, D.

Sénit, C. A. (2019). ‘Leaving no one behind? The influence of civil society participation on the Sustainable Development Goals’, EPC: Politics and Space 2020, 38(4): p. 693–712.

Somali Institute for Development Research and Analysis (SIDRA) (August 2019). The Role of Civil Society Organizations in SDGs Localization in Somalia. Policy Brief 10. Available at: https://sidrainstitute.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/08/PB-CSOs-Role-in-SDGs.pdf [Accessed 12 December 2020].

Soto, J. (2015). ‘The weakening of representative democracy: outlook on the global agenda 2015’, World Economic Forum (WEF) [online]. Available at: http://reports.weforum.org/outlook-global-agenda-2015/top-10-trends-of-2015/5- weakening-of-representative-democracy/ [Accessed 14 October 2020].

Suttor-Sorel, L., and Hercelin, N. (2020). Nature’s Return: Embedding Environmental Goals at the Heart of Economic and Financial Decision-making. Finance Watch.

The Sustainable Development Goals Center for Africa (SDGCA) (May 2020). COVID-19 Unprecedented risk to SDGs in Africa [online]. Available at: https://sdgcafrica.org/wp- content/uploads/2020/06/COVID-19-UNPRECEDENTED-RISK-TO-SDGs-IN- AFRICA_Web-Final.pdf [Accessed 29 October 2020].

The Sustainable Development Solution Network’s Thematic Research Network on Data and Statistics (SDSN TRENDS) (2019). Counting on the World to Act: A Roadmap for Governments to Achieve Modern Data Systems for Sustainable Development. New York.

Thematic Research Network on Data and Statistics (TRENDS) (April 2019). Localizing the SDGs in Colombian Cities Through the Cómo Vamos City Network. New York.

United Cities and Local Governments (UCLG) (2020). Local and Regional Governments’ report to the 2020 HLPF: 4th Report, Towards the Localization of the SDGs: How to accelerate transformative actions in the aftermath of the COVID-19 outbreak. Barcelona.

United Kingdom Office of Prime Minister (November 2020). PM outlines his Ten Point Plan for a Green Industrial Revolution for 250,000 jobs. Press Release [online]. Available at: https://www.gov.uk/government/news/pm-outlines-his-ten-point-plan-for-a-green-industrial-revolution-for-250000-jobs [Accessed 20 January 2021].

United Nations (UN) (2019). Report of the Secretary-General on SDG Progress 2019: Special Edition. New York.

United Nations (UN) (2020a). The Sustainable Development Goals Report 2020 [online]. Available at: https://unstats.un.org/sdgs/report/2020/The-Sustainable- Development-Goals-Report-2020.pdf [Accessed 15 October 2020].

United Nations (UN) (2020b). Sustainable Development Report 2020: The Sustainable Development Goals and COVID-19. Cambridge University Press.

United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD. 2020). SDG Investment Trends Monitor. Geneva.

United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UN DESA) (2020). 2020 Voluntary National Reviews Synthesis Report. New York.

United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) (2020a). COVID-19 AND HUMAN DEVELOPMENT: Assessing the Crisis, Envisioning the Recovery. New York.

United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) (2020c). Beyond Recovery: Towards 2030. New York.

United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and Frederick S. Pardee Center for International Futures (2020b). Assessing impact of COVID-19 on the Sustainable Development Goals. New York.

United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia (ESCWA) (2020). Arab Sustainable Development Report 2020. Beirut.

United Nations General Assembly (2012). Resolution: 66/288: The future we want (27 July 2012) [online]. Available at: https://www.un.org/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=A/RES/66/288&Lang=E [Accessed 1 November 2020].

Valenica, S., Simon, D., Croese, S., Nordqvist, J., Olokoe, M., Sharma, T., Buck. N., Versace, I. (2019). ‘Adapting the Sustainable Development Goals and the New Urban Agenda’, International Journal of Urban Sustainable Development 11-1, p.4-23.

Van Tulder, R. (2018). ‘A Framework for Effective Corporate Involvement’. Business and the Sustainable Development Goals. Rotterdam: Rotterdam School of Management, Erasmus University, RSM Series on Positive Change.

Vivid Economics and Energy Transition Advisers (ETA) (2020). The Inevitable Policy Response: Policy Forecasts [online]. Available at: https://www.unpri.org/download?ac=9832 [Accessed 30 October 2020].

Weber, O. (2019). ‘Sustainable finance and the SDGs’, in S Dalby, S Horton, R Mahon & D Thomaz (eds), Achieving the Sustainable Development Goals: Global Governance Challenges, 1st ed. Routledge, Abingdon, Oxon ; New York, NY : Routledge, 2019, | Series: Routledge studies in sustainable development. Series: Routledge studies in sustainable development.

World Bank Blogs (2021). Updated estimates of the impact of COVID-19 on global poverty: Looking back at 2020 and the outlook for 2021 [online]. Available at: https://blogs.worldbank.org/opendata/updated-estimates-impact-COVID-19-global-poverty-looking-back-2020-and-outlook-2021 [Accessed 30 January 2021].

World Bank Group (WBG) (2020). Poverty and shared Prosperity 2020: Reversals of Fortune. Washington.

World Economic Forum (WEF) (March 2020). How are companies responding to the coronavirus crisis? [online] Available at: https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2020/03/how-are-companies-responding-to-the-coronavirus-crisis-d15bed6137/ [Accessed 2 January 2021].

World Economic Forum (WEF) and Boston Consulting Group (BCG) (January 2020). The Net-Zero Challenge: Fast-Forward to Decisive Climate Action. World Economic Forum 2020. Geneva.

Zhan, J.X., Santos-Paulino, A.U. (2021). ‘Investing in the Sustainable Development Goals: Mobilization, channeling, and impact.’ J Int Bus Policy 4, 166–183.