¿Cómo el género y la edad pueden afectar el comportamiento de compra del consumidor? Evidencia desde una perspectiva microeconómica de Hungría

Main Article Content

Maria Fekete-Farkas https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6058-009X
Abbas Gholampour https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5720-4544
Parisa Bouzari https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0453-3539
Hadi Jarghooiyan https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6796-9567
Pejman Ebrahimi https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0125-3707


Consumer purchase behavior, Gender, Age, Facebook, Social networks marketing


El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo investigar el efecto de las variables demográficas de género y edad en el comportamiento de compra del consumidor on-line (CPB, por sus siglas en inglés) en Facebook en Hungría. La población estadística del presente estudio consiste en usuarios de Facebook en Hungría, incluidos los nativos húngaros y los extranjeros que residen en este país, incluidos los estudiantes. Se encuestó a una muestra de 433 consumidores en línea en diferentes grupos de edad. El cuestionario se compartió a través de un enlace en línea en la plataforma de Facebook y también en varios canales. Se utilizó la prueba t de Welch para examinar la variable de género, y la prueba de Welch y Brown-Forsythe, para examinar la variable de edad. Los resultados mostraron que hubo una diferencia significativa entre el CPB en todos los grupos de edad y el grupo de más de 50 años en Facebook. Este importante resultado enfatizó la importancia y el impacto de las redes sociales como canales de comercialización en los jóvenes. Otro punto importante fue la diferencia entre los comportamientos de compra de los consumidores masculinos y femeninos. Los resultados de esta investigación pueden tener implicaciones para que las empresas desarrollen sus ventajas competitivas y adopten enfoques adecuados en las campañas de publicidad y marketing en función de las características sociodemográficas de las personas.


Los datos de descargas todavía no están disponibles.
Abstract 2825 | PDF (English) Downloads 1313


Broeder, P., & van Hout, A. (2019). When friends recommend: online purchasing behavior of Russian and Dutch people when prompted by recommendations from Facebook friends. Russian Journal of Communication, 11(3). https://doi.org/10.1080/19409419.2019.1656545

Brown, R. (2009). Public Relations and the Social Web: How to use social media and web 2.0 in communications. Kogan Page Publishers.

Cabral, J. (2011). Is Generation Y Addicted to Social Media? The Elon Journal of Undergraduate Research in Communications, 2.

Comscore Incorporation. (2011). It’s a Social World: Top 10 Need-to-Knows About Social Networking and Where It’s Headed. COMSCORE WHITEPAPER.

Dabija, D. C., Babut, R., Dinu, V., & Lugojan, M. I. (2017). Cross-generational analysis of information searching based on social media in Romania. Transformations in Business and Economics, 16(2).

Dahlqvist, J., & Wiklund, J. (2012). Measuring the market newness of new ventures. Journal of Business Venturing, 27(2). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusvent.2010.12.001

Dal Zotto, C., & Omidi, A. (2020). Platformization of Media Entrepreneurship: A Conceptual Development. Nordic Journal of Media Management, 1(2), 209–233. https://doi.org/10.5278/njmm.2597-0445.5234

Darbha, S., & Rao, N. (2016). Review of generational cohorts to draw a parallel in context of Indian workforce. The International Journal Of Business & Management, 4(4).

Demmers, J., Weltevreden, J. W. J., & van Dolen, W. M. (2020). Consumer Engagement with Brand Posts on Social Media in Consecutive Stages of the Customer Journey. International Journal of Electronic Commerce, 24(1). https://doi.org/10.1080/10864415.2019.1683701

Dhaoui, C., & Webster, C. M. (2021). Brand and consumer engagement behaviors on Facebook brand pages: Let’s have a (positive) conversation. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 38(1). https://doi. org/10.1016/j.ijresmar.2020.06.005

Ebrahimi, P., Ahmadi, M., Gholampour, A., & Alipour, H. (2021). CRM performance and development of media entrepreneurship in digital, social media and mobile commerce. International Journal of Emerging Markets, 16(1). https://doi.org/10.1108/IJOEM-11-2018-0588

Ebrahimi, P., Hajmohammadi, A., & Khajeheian, D. (2020). Place branding and moderating role of social media. In Current Issues in Tourism (Vol. 23, Issue 14). https://doi.org/10.1080/13683500.2019.1658725

Ebrahimi, P., Kot, S., & Fekete-Farkas, M. (2020). Platform Entrepreneurship: An Interpretative Structural Modeling. Nordic Journal of Media Management, 1(3), 385–400. https://doi.org/10.5278/njmm.2597- 0445.6108

Ebrahimi, P., Moosavi, S. M., & Chirani, E. (2016). Relationship between Leadership Styles and Organizational Performance by Considering Innovation in Manufacturing Companies of Guilan Province. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 230. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2016.09.044

Emami, A. (2017). Gender risk preference in entrepreneurial opportunity: evidence from Iran. International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, 30(2). https://doi.org/10.1504/IJESB.2017.10002035

Emami, A., & Naderi, N. (2018). Impact of situation in the study of gender entrepreneurship and opportunity evaluation: An analysis of risk disposition. In Contributions to Management Science. https://doi. org/10.1007/978-3-319-71722-7_22

Emami, A., Saghafi, F., Zarei, B., Ebrahimzadeh, M., & Davari, A. (2011). MANAGERIAL APPLICATIONS OF FRAMING EFFECTS AND MENTAL ACCOUNTING IN NETWORK PARTICIPATION. Advances in Production Engineering & Management, 6, 57–69.

Escobar-Rodríguez, T., Grávalos-Gastaminza, M. A., & Pérez-Calañas, C. (2017). Facebook and the intention of purchasing tourism products: moderating effects of gender, age and marital status. Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, 17(2). https://doi.org/10.1080/15022250.2015.1137784

Estiri, M., Amiri, N. S., Khajeheian, D., & Rayej, H. (2018). Leader-member exchange and organizational citizenship behavior in hospitality industry: a study on effect of gender. Eurasian Business Review, 8(3). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40821-017-0083-7

Fauser, S. G., Wiedenhofer, J., & Lorenz, M. (2011). “Touchpoint social web”: An explorative study about using the social web for influencing high involvement purchase decisions. Problems and Perspectives in Management, 9(1).

Feldman, J. M., & Lynch, J. G. (1988). Self-generated validity and other effects of measurement on belief, attitude, intention, and behavior. Journal of Applied Psychology, 73(3). https://doi.org/10.1037/0021- 9010.73.3.421

Frutos, S. M., Giones, F., & Miralles, F. (2014). Social Media engagement as an e-commerce driver, a consumer behavior perspective. Iberian Conference on Information Systems and Technologies, CISTI. https://doi. org/10.1109/CISTI.2014.6877033

Gamboa, A. M., & Gonçalves, H. M. (2014). Customer loyalty through social networks: Lessons from Zara on Facebook. Business Horizons, 57(6). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bushor.2014.07.003

Ghanbary, S., Sharifi, S. M., & Momeni, S. (2021). OFD platform: consumers’ persuasion based on economic, relational and enjoyment values. Journal of Foodservice Business Research, 1-24. https://doi.org/10.1080 /15378020.2021.1950509

Gefen, D., & Straub, D. W. (1997). Gender differences in the perception and use of e-mail: An extension to the technology acceptance model. MIS Quarterly: Management Information Systems, 21(4). https://doi. org/10.2307/249720

Gonda, G., Gorgenyi-Hegyes, E., Nathan, R. J., & Fekete-Farkas, M. (2020). Competitive Factors of Fashion Retail Sector with Special Focus on SMEs. Economies, 8(4). https://doi.org/10.3390/economies8040095

Hair, J. F., Hult, G. T. M., Ringle, C. M., & Sarstedt, M. (2017). A Primer on Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM). Second Edition. In California: Sage.

Haji, R., & Stock, W. G. (2021). User settings for advertising optimization on Facebook: Active customer participation or settings blindness? Telematics and Informatics, 59. https://doi.org/10.1016/j. tele.2020.101548

Hawkins, D. I., & Mothersbaugh, D. L. (2010). Consumer behaviour: Building marketing strategy (11th ed.). McGraw Hill.

Horst, S.-O., & Hitters, E. (2020). Digital Media Entrepreneurship: Implications for Strategic Identity Work and Knowledge Sharing of Beginning Entrepreneurs. Nordic Journal of Media Management Issue, 1(1). https://doi.org/10.5278/njmm.2597-0445.3612

Hossain, S. F. A. (2019). Social networking and its role in media entrepreneurship: Evaluating the use of mobile phones in the context of online shopping–A review. Journal of Media Management and Entrepreneurship ….

Jackson, V., Stoel, L., & Brantley, A. (2011). Mall attributes and shopping value: Differences by gender and generational cohort. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 18(1). https://doi.org/10.1016/j. jretconser.2010.08.002

Janavi, E., Soleimani, M., Gholampour, A., Friedrichsen, M., & Ebrahimi, P. (2021). Effect of social media adoption and media needs on online purchase behavior: The moderator roles of media type, gender, age. Journal of Information Technology Management, 13(2). https://doi.org/10.22059/jitm.2020.300799.2501

Jensen, H., & Sund, K. J. (2020). Marketing Challenges and Advertising Partner Selection: Exploring Advertiser-Agency Relationships in the Danish Media Industry. Nordic Journal of Media Management, 1(2), 297–313. https://doi.org/10.5278/njmm.2597-0445.4432

Joines, J. L., Scherer, C. W., & Scheufele, D. A. (2003). Exploring motivations for consumer Web use and their implications for e-commerce. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 20(2–3). https://doi. org/10.1108/07363760310464578

Kahle, L. & Valette-Florence, P. (2012). Marketplace Lifestyles in an Age of Social Media: Theory and Methods. Routledge.

Kahraman, M. (2010). Sosyal Medya 101. Kalakota, R., & Whinston, A. (1997). E-commerce: A Manager’s Guide.

Kemp, S. (2017). Digital in 2017: Global Overview. We Are Social and Hootsuite.

Khajeheian, D., & Ebrahimi, P. (2020). Media branding and value co-creation: effect of user participation in social media of newsmedia on attitudinal and behavioural loyalty. European J. of International Management, 1(1). https://doi.org/10.1504/EJIM.2020.10020735

Khalaf Ahmad, A. M. (2016). Social Media Usability and Its Impact on Buyer Purchasing Behavior Based on Buyer’s Trust: Saudi Arabia Context. International Journal of Business Administration, 8(1). https://doi. org/10.5430/ijba.v8n1p87

Khobzi, H., Lau, R. Y. K., & Cheung, T. C. H. (2019). The outcome of online social interactions on Facebook pages: A study of user engagement behavior. Internet Research, 29(1). https://doi.org/10.1108/IntR-04- 2017-0161

Kim, A. J., & Ko, E. (2012). Do social media marketing activities enhance customer equity? An empirical study of luxury fashion brand. Journal of Business Research, 65(10). https://doi.org/10.1016/j. jbusres.2011.10.014

Kim, W. H., Cho, J. L., & Kim, K. S. (2019). The relationships of wine promotion, customer satisfaction, and behavioral intention: The moderating roles of customers’ gender and age. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, 39. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhtm.2019.03.001

Korgaonkar, P. K., & Wolin, L. D. (1999). A multivariate analysis of web usage. Journal of Advertising Research, 39(2).

Kotler, P., & Armstrong, G. (2018). Principles of Marketing 17th Global Edition. In Pearson Education Limited.

Kotler, P., & Keller, K. L. (2012). Marketing management. Pearson Education International, 817.

Lee, M., Hong, J. H., Chung, S., & Back, K. J. (2021). Exploring the Roles of DMO’s Social Media Efforts and Information Richness on Customer Engagement: Empirical Analysis on Facebook Event Pages. Journal of Travel Research, 60(3). https://doi.org/10.1177/0047287520934874

Leong, L. Y., Ooi, K. B., Chong, A. Y. L., & Lin, B. (2013). Modeling the stimulators of the behavioral intention to use mobile entertainment: Does gender really matter? Computers in Human Behavior, 29(5). https://doi. org/10.1016/j.chb.2013.04.004

Lin, X., Featherman, M., Brooks, S. L., & Hajli, N. (2019). Exploring Gender Differences in Online Consumer Purchase Decision Making: An Online Product Presentation Perspective. Information Systems Frontiers, 21(5). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10796-018-9831-1
Liu, W. Y., Lin, C. C., Lee, Y. S., & Deng, D. J. (2013). On gender differences in consumer behavior for online financial transaction of cosmetics. Mathematical and Computer Modelling, 58(1–2). https://doi. org/10.1016/j.mcm.2012.08.010

Ma, L., Sun, B., & Kekre, S. (2015). The squeaky wheel gets the grease-an empirical analysis of customer voice and firm intervention on twitter. Marketing Science, 34(5). https://doi.org/10.1287/mksc.2015.0912

Modahl, M. (1999). Now or Never: How Companies Must Change to Win the Battle for Internet Consumers (1st ed.). Harper Business.

Moghadamzadeh, A., Ebrahimi, P., Radfard, S., Salamzadeh, A., & Khajeheian, D. (2020). Investigating the role of customer co-creation behavior on social media platforms in rendering innovative services. Sustainability (Switzerland), 12(17). https://doi.org/10.3390/SU12176926

Molinillo, S., Aguilar-Illescas, R., Anaya-Sánchez, R., & Liébana-Cabanillas, F. (2021). Social commerce website design, perceived value and loyalty behavior intentions: The moderating roles of gender, age and frequency of use. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 102404. https://doi.org/10.1016/J. JRETCONSER.2020.102404

Moon, B.-J. (2004). Consumer adoption of the internet as an information search and product purchase channel: some research hypotheses. International Journal of Internet Marketing and Advertising, 1(1). https://doi.org/10.1504/IJIMA.2004.003692

Moro, S., & Rita, P. (2018). Brand strategies in social media in hospitality and tourism. In International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management (Vol. 30, Issue 1). https://doi.org/10.1108/ IJCHM-07-2016-0340

Munar, A. M. (2012). Social Media Strategies and Destination Management. Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, 12(2). https://doi.org/10.1080/15022250.2012.679047

Naeem, M. (2019a). Do social networking platforms promote service quality and purchase intention of customers of service-providing organizations? Journal of Management Development, 38(7). https://doi. org/10.1108/JMD-11-2018-0327

Naeem, M. (2019b). Role of social networking platforms as tool for enhancing the service quality and purchase intention of customers in Islamic country. Journal of Islamic Marketing, 10(3). https://doi.org/10.1108/ JIMA-11-2018-0214

Nathan, R. J., Victor, V., Tan, M., & Fekete-Farkas, M. (2020). Tourists’ use of Airbnb app for visiting a historical city. Information Technology and Tourism, 22(2). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40558-020-00176-0

Nejati, M., Salamzadeh, Y., & Salamzadeh, A. (2011). Ecological purchase behaviour: Insights from a Middle Eastern country. International Journal of Environment and Sustainable Development, 10(4). https://doi. org/10.1504/IJESD.2011.047774

Nemati, S., & Khajeheian, D. (2018). Big data for competitiveness of SMEs: Use of consumer analytic to identify niche markets. In D. Khajeheian, M. Friedrichsen, & W. Mödinger (Eds.), Competitiveness in Emerging Markets. Springer International Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-71722-7

Ngai, E. W. T., Tao, S. S. C., & Moon, K. K. L. (2015). Social media research: Theories, constructs, and conceptual frameworks. International Journal of Information Management, 35(1). https://doi. org/10.1016/j.ijinfomgt.2014.09.004

Oláh, J., Kitukutha, N., Haddad, H., Pakurár, M., Máté, D., & Popp, J. (2018). Achieving sustainable e-commerce in environmental, social and economic dimensions by taking possible trade-offs. In Sustainability (Switzerland) (Vol. 11, Issue 1). https://doi.org/10.3390/su11010089

Omar Bali, A., Jabar, S., Jalal, H., & Sofi-Karim, M. (2020). Iraqi media entrepreneurs across social media: Factors and challenges. Journal of Digital Media & Policy. https://doi.org/10.1386/jdmp_00024_1

Ono, H., & Zavodny, M. (2003). Gender and the Internet. Social Science Quarterly, 84(1). https://doi. org/10.1111/1540-6237.00143

Palalic, R., Ramadani, V., Mariam Gilani, S., Gërguri-Rashiti, S., & Dana, L. (2020). Social media and consumer buying behavior decision: what entrepreneurs should know? Management Decision, 59(6). https://doi. org/10.1108/MD-10-2019-1461

Pinar, M., Wilder, C., Shaltoni, A. M., & Stück, J. M. (2017). Effects of Gender, Occupational Stereotyping, and Culture on Perceived Service Quality in Anglo-Saxon and Middle Eastern Cultures. Services Marketing Quarterly, 38(2). https://doi.org/10.1080/15332969.2017.1289786

Prasad, S., Gupta, I. C., & Totala, N. K. (2017). Social media usage, electronic word of mouth and purchasedecision involvement. Asia-Pacific Journal of Business Administration, 9(2). https://doi.org/10.1108/ APJBA-06-2016-0063 Punj, G. (2011).

Effect of Consumer Beliefs on Online Purchase Behavior: The Influence of Demographic Characteristics and Consumption Values. Journal of Interactive Marketing, 25(3). https://doi. org/10.1016/j.intmar.2011.04.004

Rahman, Z., Moghavvemmi, S., Suberamanaian, K., Zanuddin, H., & bin Md Nasir, H. N. (2018). Mediating impact of fan-page engagement on social media connectedness and followers purchase intention. Online Information Review, 42(7). https://doi.org/10.1108/OIR-05-2017-0150

Rather, R. A., & Hollebeek, L. D. (2021). Customers’ service-related engagement, experience, and behavioral intent: Moderating role of age. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 60. https://doi.org/10.1016/j. jretconser.2021.102453

Rehman, F., Ilyas, M., Nawaz, T., & Hyder, S. (2014). How facebook advertising affects buying behavior of young consumers : the moderating role of gender. Academic Research International, 5(July).

Roshandel-Arbatani, T., Kawamorita, H., Ghanbary, S., & Ebrahimi, P. (2019). Modelling Media Entrepreneurship in Social Media: SEM and MLP-ANN Approach. AD-Minister, 34. https://doi.org/10.17230/administer.34.2

Roy Dholakia, R., & Uusitalo, O. (2002). Switching to electronic stores: Consumer characteristics and the perception of shopping benefits. International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, 30(10). https://doi.org/10.1108/09590550210445335
Sabbar, S., & Hyun, D. (2016). What do we trust? a study on credibility of new and old media and relations with medium, content and audience characteristics. NEW MEDIA STUDIES, 1(4 #A00148), 205–245. https://www.sid.ir/en/journal/ViewPaper.aspx?ID=582609

Sabbar, S., & Matheson, D. (2019). Mass Media vs. the Mass of Media: A Study on the Human Nodes in a Social Network and their Chosen Messages. Journal of Cyberspace Studies, 3(1), 23–42. https://doi. org/10.22059/jcss.2019.271467.1031

Sadat Mirzadeh, M., Salamzadeh, Y., & Salamzadeh, A. (2017). Identification of factors affecting individual industries. Economía y Sociedad, 22(52). https://doi.org/10.15359/eys.22-52.4

Salamzadeh, A., Tajpour, M., Hosseini, E., & Salembrahmi, M. (2021). Human Capital and the Performance of Iranian Digital Startups: The Moderating Role of Knowledge Sharing Behaviour. International Journal of Public Sector Performance Management.

Sanchez, G. (2013). PLS Path Modeling with R. R Package Notes. Sandström, S., Edvardsson, B., Kristensson, P., & Magnusson, P. (2008). Value in use through service experience. Managing Service Quality: An International Journal, 18(2). https://doi. org/10.1108/09604520810859184

Shah, A. M., Zahoor, S. Z., & Qureshi, I. H. (2019). Social Media and Purchasing Behavior: A Study of the Mediating Effect of Customer Relationships. Journal of Global Marketing, 32(2). https://doi.org/10.1080/0 8911762.2018.1497243

Solatianaghizi, R., Ebrahimi, P., Bazghaleh, T., & Norouzi, Z. (2017). The effect of job attitude and affective commitment on OCB of nurses. Pharmacophore, 8, 1–11.

Sorce, P., Perotti, V., & Widrick, S. (2005). Attitude and age differences in online buying. International Journal of Retail and Distribution Management, 33(2), 122–132. https://doi.org/10.1108/09590550510581458

Tajeddin, M., Emami, A., & Rastgar, A. A. (2018). Social networks of immigrant entrepreneurs in media industry: The case of iranian immigrants in Canada. In Contributions to Management Science. https://doi. org/10.1007/978-3-319-71722-7_8

Taylor, P., & Keeter, S. (2010). Millennials A portrait of Generation Next Confident Connected Open to Change. PewResearchCenter.

Timoshenko, A., & Hauser, J. R. (2019). Identifying customer needs from user-generated content. Marketing Science, 38(1). https://doi.org/10.1287/mksc.2018.1123

Tiruwa, A., Yadav, R., & Suri, P. K. (2018). Moderating effects of age, income and internet usage on Online Brand Community (OBC)-induced purchase intention. Journal of Advances in Management Research, 15(3). https://doi.org/10.1108/JAMR-04-2017-0043

Turban, E., Lee, J. K., King, D., McKay, J., & Marshall, P. (2008). Electronic Commerce: a managerial perspective 2008. In Commerce A Managerial Perspective (5th ed. (Issue July 2015).

Vafaei, S. A., Azmoon, I., & Fekete-Farkas, M. (2019). The impact of perceived sustainable marketing policies on green customer satisfaction. Polish Journal of Management Studies, 19(1). https://doi.org/10.17512/ pjms.2019.19.1.36

Vahl, A. (2011). Create EPIC Facebook Ads. Publication of Hubsport.
Venkatesh, V., & Morris, M. G. (2000). Why Don’t Men Ever Stop to Ask for Directions? Gender, Social Influence, and Their Role in Technology Acceptance and Usage Behavior. MIS Quarterly, 24(1). https:// doi.org/10.2307/3250981

Wang, X., Lin, X., & Spencer, M. K. (2019). Exploring the effects of extrinsic motivation on consumer behaviors in social commerce: Revealing consumers’ perceptions of social commerce benefits. International Journal of Information Management, 45. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijinfomgt.2018.11.010

Wang, Y., & Sun, S. (2010). Examining the role of beliefs and attitudes in online advertising: A comparison between the USA and Romania. International Marketing Review, 27(1). https://doi. org/10.1108/02651331011020410

Zarea, H., Abdollahi, H., & Su, Z. (2020). Social Commerce Constructs and Consumers’ Purchase Intention from Minimalist Brands. International Journal of Industrial and Systems Engineering, 1(1). https://doi. org/10.1504/ijise.2020.10033667